Working in groups 2

March 25, 2014 § 2 Comments

Last time I wondered what was the best application for working collaboratively. The answer is that there are almost as many options as there are apps and that there are also many ecosystems that do not necessarily work well with each other. I see four ways of handling or presenting collaboration through the cloud:

  1. First, sharing files. This method is presented as placing a shared folder in the cloud and sharing access to it. Dropbox is the quintessential example, but Mac, Microsoft, Google, etc. all major players have a cloud exchange option.
  2. Second, synchronizing files. Many apps take advantage of folders in the cloud to synchronize documents. The philosophy of this approach is app-centered and not folder-centered. Examples of apps that use Dropbox are Quip, Simple note, Scrivener, etc.
  3. Three, real-time simultaneous edition. Only a few apps you work collaboratively in real time without creating multiple versions of documents and annotations. GoogleDrive excels at simultaneous collaboration.
  4. Four, the borrowing model. Collaborating on documents through annotations that are accepted or rejected by the owner of the document can be complemented with a metaphor of “library borrowing”. Apple iCloud, or Microsoft OneDrive, are examples of this. You create a document and share it by placing it in the cloud. Only one person can edit a document at the time. As in a library, a person “borrows” the document to work on it and then puts it back in the cloud. This avoids having parallel contradictory edits. Each major ecosystem has a cloud, Microsoft, Adobe, Apple, Google, etc. and each major app has the option of using either the cloud or our personal computers as the central node (think OmniPresence)
  5. Fifth, collaborative editing of websites through wikis. Essentially, a wiki is a web page with an open-editing system. Public wikis are mostly web-based: PBWorks, Wikispaces, Wikia, EduWikis. They can be open as Wikipedia limited to groups such as Google Apps), or even personal such as Notational Velocity / SimpleNote. which allows for opening one single note in your app to function as a wiki for collaboration.

GoogleApps. The good: Ranks the highest in collaboration and breath of tasks. The Bad: When you want more specific or aesthetic results it may be limited. In the practice Google unapologetic monitoring of user activity and “prosumer” focus. Many people I want to work with who are not necessarily neo-Luddites, don’t want to use Google because of resistance to accumulation of power and world domination. (Google+ really crossed the line for many) 😐

Microsoft OneDrive. The good: Microsoft Office set a standard for a reason. It can do many, many tasks and do them right. The online version is almost as powerful and versatile as the desktop one. There is almost seamless collaboration between platforms (Windows, Mac OS, Linux) The bad: Microsoft has a bad reputation for taking control over your personal computer, as well as attracting and being vulnerable to viruses and hackers. It can be clunky and overbearing with unnecessary options. It is also heavy in terms of hard drive space. In the practice: Microsoft doesn’t seem to be going in the right direction. Office for iPad and iPhone has been developed and not released for a long time, allowing other programs such as Quip, to eat up Office potential market share there. It seems that Microsoft represents the past, not the future, and as such it is not that exciting. Of course we are all aware of the “distortion field” Microsoft lovers claim affect the followers of the cult of Apple. Still, the hard fact is that many of the people I want to collaborate with outside my university, which uses Google Apps, do not want to sign up for Google or Microsoft whom they distrust for handling personal information. 😐

OpenOffice.The good: It is open source. Is similar to Google Drive only resident in your computer. The bad: It is open source, so it is not consistent or aesthetic as Apple apps. If you have Microsoft Office and Apple suits, it is pretty much redundant. Does not have any specific feature that makes it particularly attractive (such as Mellel-Bookends handling of non-western typographies, or ScrivenerScapleSente writer-studio approach) In the practice: OpenOffice is bland and unexciting 😩

Apple apps. The good: Keynote works great. They are aesthetic. Almost no viruses, malware or corruption. The bad: Apple suits are being streamlined and stripped of relevant tools. They take massive disk space, and cloud collaboration is too basic, tending to produce multiple copies of the same document in each device iPad, iPhone, cloud, and Desktop, every time you work with it. These copies then multiply further once you synchronize devices via iTunes. Apple does not offer real powerful tools to harness this proliferation of copies or reduce the size of email attachment folders other than go over each email separately. In the practice: Too poor to use for any serious collaborative project, even for a hard core mac user like me. This is not an isolated problem but rather pervasive in Apple handling of files. Think for example of how iTunes backs up your iPhone and iPad, creating copies of every app that is on them, which you could easily re-download from the App store if you needed.

Wikis. The good: Great if you work with Web 2.0 platforms, openly and to create crowd-based documents as in Genius or Wikipedia. Very good if you want to maintain collaboratively a project website. Very good for the « veille documentaire » and use of private Wikis. Very good if you want to keep information you are gathering through long periods of time. The bad: Seems good for collecting and publishing, not drafting documents or research. Google Sites still works best. In the practice: Good for keeping sponsors  and constituency informed, building a public image, or editing collaboratively a website with various types of files, images, texts, graphs, and videos. Could be a major time-robber. Possible use in the classroom to teach white papers and database construction as well.

The last piece of information to consider is privacy. The cloud is vulnerable, and several universities and private organizations prevent collaborations that put sensitive information in the cloud.



Working in groups

February 26, 2014 § Leave a comment

Interesting questions are never answered by one person alone. Not that they once were, and then now they are not, but the romantic pretension of one author-one text has been loosing traction in many fields for a long time. So what is the app for teamwork?

I see there are actually tons.

Google Apps, Skydrive, iCloud and the new Mailbox/Dropbox interface all let you work collaboratively. Adobe Cloud and all major suits are offering cloud integration too. You have the usual suspects in desktop applications: Conceptdraw Project, Merlin, OmniPlan, xPlan all of which have a considerable learning curve and demand a very significant amount of time to input data if you want them to be useful. Some interesting programs such as ProjectX and Mori no longer exist.

There are many cloud-based project management apps that seem to be more flexible. A simple Internet search shows some of the top contenders for small projects used to be Basecamp, Jira, Asana and Trello but that people are fleeing away from Basecamp in large numbers and Jira needs a degree in Jira before being useful. Asana is oriented towards CEOs and Trello towards team members. Mark Suster wrote an interesting comparison of them here. Flow, Convo, Podio, Mavenlink, ProWorkFlow, NetSuite, Wrike, Insightly, Liquidplanner, Freshbooks, WorkZone, OpenProject… the list seems endless. Streak adds  Customer Relationship Management (CRM) to your Google email, Boomerang adds functionality to your Google calendar, etc. Some of those apps seem to be suited for business, others for architects, I haven’t seen one clearly directed to research groups, although I have been invited to collaborate on some research using Google Apps and Adobe Cloud.

An interesting fact is that you can find 2014 reviews of the “10 best Project Management software for Mac” that do not cite any of these apps!

What app would be better to manage a small research group / think tank? The question is still open…


The last day of class

November 20, 2013 § Leave a comment

Just as the first day sets the tone for the rest of the course, the last day of class creates the student’s last impression of the class.

The last day can serve as a reflection and round-up of the course that makes the connection between individual session to students who are often too busy preparing for next day, to take a step back and figure out how all ties-up together. It can include a review of the syllabus and what was accomplished as a class stressing contents but also class engagement and student’s motivations to learn and use the material. It can stress how students can use that material in life, in other courses, their major or their college experience in general. A concept map can be a good exercise to give a visual representation of the course and how all ties in together.

The last day of class can also include a review for the final exam, which could nicely connect with the syllabus review and concept map. Students can be asked to write questions they think should be part of the final exam, some of which may actually be used. One question I include in midterms and finals is what important concept of the section was not covered by the exam. Students need to explain through a structured argument what the concept is, what it means and why they think it is relevant.

The last day of class can also include student evaluations, which the two prior exercises would help get more focused and with a better perspective of the whole course. Do not bring cookies, or candies that day if you don’t want to read that students perceive you are trying to influence their comments.

The last day of class can also help students imagine future learning. Students can be asked to write anonymous letters advising future students on how to succeed in the course, giving them tips of does and don’ts. Students can be asked to share their most significant experience in the course and what they are going to remember the most of it. They can be asked to fill the blanks in “Before this course I_____________ and now I_____.

The last day of class should be relaxed, include time for Q&A, give students an overview connecting all elements of the class and reminding them of its objectives, while making their knowledge visible. It can present sample exam questions and tell them how to prepare but above all it is a time for the instructor to praise students for their efforts and achievements and give them a chance to say goodby.

Is opting for private multicultural schools a smart choice for multicultural households?

November 20, 2013 Comments Off on Is opting for private multicultural schools a smart choice for multicultural households?

Public or private k-12 is a common question in multicultural households, specially the ones with French or Latin components.

In Spain and Spanish America it is common to send children to private or charter schools (a mix of private-public)  before college if one can afford it. As it is in France, college education is thought of as mostly free or affordable. Professional masters such as MBAs, or LLMs are roughly equally expensive everywhere, and more academically-oriented graduate schools rely everywhere on fellowships and graduate student work. The hefty student-loan system that exists in the U.S. often puzzles and horrifies European and Latin American parents alike. Finally, a significant difference is that n the U.S. college students are doing a lot outside of schools in terms of community work, service-learning, internships, etc. which is not yet the case in French, Spanish, and Spanish-American environments, or not to the same extent.

If it is true that k-12 students in the U.S. are in average worse prepared in cognitive and behavioral aspects than comparable industrialized countries, and are lacking also in what liberal arts education seeks to offer college students, (see PISA and the OECD education reports for example), if that information is accurate, then is a hyphenated private school in k-12 and college abroad a possible solution for concerned multicultural households?

I do not have a definite answer, but I do have a few thoughts.

  • Cost. Private schools can cost a little fortune ranging from $15,000 to $30,000 per year per child in k-12. It is true that college in the U.S. is unbelievably expensive just shy of $50,000 per year sometimes plus room and board, but having a kid studying abroad is not completely free either.
  • Diversity. Because of the cost and in spite of scholarships, private schools tend to have low socioeconomic and cultural diversity in their classrooms. A slightly more diverse environment in terms of international students may exist. If we take French-American schools for example, the fact that French schools are public schools outside of France, implies that most of the cost is paid off by the French state, if you happen to be an expatriate. This of course is a valid example only for the French system and for the kids who happen to have a French passport, a negligible minority.
  • Family ties. If the family is multicultural and versed in the cultures serving as context for the education, it can strengthen family ties. If not, and not well managed, it may create a gap between parents and children, specially during their teenage years.
  • Network. School in general and college in particular is a space where one builds life-lasting networks and ties.
    Hyphenated private school in the U.S. often lack the critical mass necessary to accomplish this. Some children’s parents are  diplomats or  work in transnational corporations that require frequent mobility. While the relative homogeneity of the French-school system abroad offers a degree of transnational stability to kids, it is not conducive to the construction of life-long ties.
    These type of schools also have a pyramid of attrition. As students drop or move, other students cannot easily replace them because they cannot cope with content and specially the bilingualism and multiculturalism expected.
    While a negative for k-12 hyphenated private schools, network building is one of the big reasons why one ought to consider college in the U.S.
  • Location. Only relatively large cities have enough households potentially interested in hyphenated private schools to make them financially viable.
  • Integration. While long-term integration as part of the U.S. is important, it does not seem to be a concern for French and Spanish-American schools, as it is for other schools. The Cherokee-American school in North Carolina for example seems to be having more serious problems helping students fit in once they finish their k-12 education emphasizing Cherokee language and culture.

Intercultural Communication: an introduction

November 18, 2013 § Leave a comment

Edward Hall’s book The Silent Language (1959) is often cited as the starting point of the field of Intercultural Communication in the United States. During WWII and at the beginning of the Cold War between 1946 and 1956, the U.S. Foreign Service Institute and the Department of State hired some of the best linguists and anthropologists to train members of the Foreign Service. Rather than traditional broad topics taught to college students, the task was to focus on small elements of culture, and on the role of non-verbal communication in social interaction. It has been argued that this prompted Hall’s book and the institutionalization of the discipline (Leeds-Hurwitz, 2014).

There are today a vast number of intercultural communication institutions, journals, book collections and conferences. A simple Google search shows the following amongst others:  the International Communication Association, the International Academy for Intercultural Research, the International Association for Intercultural Communication Studies, or the Intercultural Communication Institute; the Journal of Intercultural Communication, the Journal of International Communication Research, the International Journal of Intercultural Relations, and Cultus: the Journal of intercultural mediation and communication.

The introductory course on Intercultural Communication for advanced undergraduates and graduates in U.S. Universities has also been subject to a relatively rich academic inquiry. A number of scholarly articles have dissected how it has been taught, with which goals, contents and methods. Some of these relfections are: Gudykunst, Ting-Toomey & Wiseman (1991), Milhouse (1997), Kalfadelis (2005) and some recent book reviews of textbooks, anthologies, readers and handbooks.

A multidimensional approach

Reviewing such a vast material can be daunting and requires at some point to commit to one or a few distinctive approaches. However, most articles coincide in that the most effective course design integrates multidimensional goals –cognitive, affective and behavioral—, combines culture-general and culture-specific content, and uses both intellectual and experiential learning processes.

Cognitive, affective and behavioral components

The cognitive component is developed through lectures, readings, class discussions, critical incidents, and small group interactions. It is tested through traditional research papers, for example comparing and contrasting intercultural and cross-cultural interactions between two or more cultures, individual and group presentations and structured exercises. The Affective component is developed through structured exercises, role-play, simulations and exercises involving interaction logs or identity-construction cards. The skill or experienced-based component is developed through simulations, observations, experience-based contacts and case studies.

Textbook selection

Classes are structured from a textbook or a reader, either off-the shelve or made ad hoc by the professor for the course. Most widely used textbooks in introductory courses are:

  • Samovar, Porter & McDaniel. Communication between cultures. Wadsworth Publishing Company, 8th. ed. 2012.
  • Samovar, Porter & McDaniel, eds. Intercultural communication: A reader. Cengage Learning. and Martin, 14th ed. 2014.
  • Martin, J. and T. Nakayama. Intercultural communication in contexts. (2004).
  • Martin, J. and T. Nakayama, eds. Experiencing intercultural communication. McGraw-Hill Higher Education,  5th ed. 2013.

Some of these textbooks were originally published in the 1980s and have been tweaked and updated ever since to reflect the change of times. Most of their theoretical approach has aged well, although they have been criticized  for focusing on cognitive aspects with too little or nothing on affective and behavioral, and for having a too phalocentric WASP and Eurocentric perspective stressing culture-specific content and communication between national cultures as opposed to interpresonal and  intercultural communication within national borders or in multicultural environments. Some of these criticisms have been addressed in the later editions, and it is important to note that these textbooks printed in the 1980s, have been successful in sufficiently keeping up with time, while others have not. The last one of the list, Experiencing intercultural communication is different first because it was first published in 1994, and also because it focuses on a more pragmatic and behavioral approach. The first one, Communication Between Cultures includes chapters on the importance of history and religion  which no other textbook I have seen addresses.

I am leaving out some interesting textbooks of course, such as Ting-Toomey Communicating Across Cultures (1999) for example, only becasue they have not been updated or do not have all the supporting materials of the ones I have mentioned earlier.

The introductory course on Intercultural Communication is usually targeted at junior or senior college students. Advanced undergraduates and master students would benefit from the more structured textbook-based approach as it contributes to the clarity of the goals, methods and contents, but would require additional reading materials. A number of other readers and handbooks cover other aspects that may complement those textbooks. For example:

  • Holliday, Hyde & Kullman Intercultural Communication: an advanced resource book for students 2nd. Ed. (2010) provides a more schematic approach emphasizing non-specific cultural approach, and both affective and behavioral exercises based on a simple model of identity-otherness-representation and the deconstruction of short fragments of text.
  • Piller Intercultural Communication: A critical introduction (2011) Edinburgh UP on another hand focuses on multicultural individuals who may have a variety of cultural affiliations and proficiently interact in a diverse and multicultural environment. It is a comprehensive critical introduction to the field from a discourse analysis, social and anthropological linguistic perspective and illuminates differential prestige of languages and language varieties.
  • Ting-Toomey and Oetzel, Managing intercultural conflict effectively (2001) is well grounded  in the concepts and theories of both conflict management and intercultural communication, and is unique in the author’s use of system theory.
  • Darla Deardorff’s Handbook of Intercultural Competence (2009) seeks to answer the question of «What is intercultural competence.» Her book is intended to be used in advanced Intercultural Communication courses.

Since no single book addresses the specific needs of an introductory intercultural communication class at a professional master’s level a good combination might be:

  1. Samovar, Porter & McDaniel. Communication between cultures. Wadsworth Publishing Company, 8th. ed. 2012. ($29-$123) ISBN-10: 111134910X | ISBN-13: 978-1111349103)
  2. Samovar, Porter & McDaniel, eds. Intercultural communication: A reader. Cengage Learning. and Martin, 14th ed. 2014. ($89 ISBN-10: 1285077393 | ISBN-13: 978-1285077390)
  3. Holliday, Hyde & Kullman Intercultural Communication: an advanced resource book for students 2nd. ed. (2010) ($47,  ISBN-10: 0415489423 | ISBN-13: 978-0415489423)
  4. Plus complementary texts supplied by the instructor both from the other books mentioned, as well as key texts to cover intercultural mass-media communication, framing, intercultural conflict management and resolution and intercultural communication strategizing.